Creating DSLs in Javascript using J-expressions

Apr 14, 2012   #Scheme  #LisP  #DSL  #Closure  #Function 

Scheme and Lisp have for long had powerful meta-programming abilities due to the syntax of their language being the same as the syntax for the main data structure supported by the language - the humble list. These languages are therefore well suited for inventing smaller special purpose “domain specific languages.

Javascript, on the other hand, has a “full blown syntax” that makes meta-programming not for the faint of heart. One consequence of the lack of such ability is that developers have not had the benefit of the abstraction possible through small special purpose DSLs.

Here, I outline an approach for creating DSLs in Javascript using the now prevalent JSON format that is native to the language. The initial part tries to explain the kinds of scenarios in which one might consider building a DSL, which is important to have an idea about. Later, I get into the actual representation using JSON.

When to make a DSL? .. or “Hunting of the Closure”.

Under normal circumstances, you should consider developing your abstractions as “modules”. Modules (or “libraries”) offer basic encapsulation and hiding facilities that JS developers are familiar with. You can help them benefit from your work by leveraging that familiarity.

On the rare occasion though, you might find yourself writing code that starts looking like a small “compiler” or “runtime”. In such circumstances, creating a DSL for that part of the system might be worthwhile to consider – the purpose, again, being that it might ease the job of those that your package targets.

A tipping point can happen when you discover that you are working with a category of objects that are “closed over” a suite of operations. In mathematics, a set of objects is said to be “closed” with respect to a function if the function maps objects of the set to other objects in the same set and we say the set “has the closure property”. But before we get to why that’s significant, let’s take a quick look at a simple example.

The “closure property” - an example

Say we want a framework to create and render visuals that vary in time – like, maybe, umm … a video? Here is a simple representation of such a visual, which we’ll call a “show” -

function show(t) {
    // calculate...
    return image;

Given such a “show”, it is trivial to write a renderer for it -

function render(show, duration_ms) {
    var startTime_ms =;
    requestAnimationFrame(function () {
        var t = - startTime_ms;
        if (t < duration_ms) {

Now, I want an operator which will delay a given show by a specified amount of time. Simple -

function delay(show, dt_ms) {
    return function (t) {
        return show(t - dt_ms);

How about a “cut” from one show to another at a given time. Also simple -

function cut(when, show1, show2) {
    return function (t) {
        return (t < when ? show1 : show2)(t);

Now, if we represent video clips using such shows, those two functions under which the set of shows is closed give us all we need to make an edited production …. because we can combine them. Note that delay takes a show and produces a show, and so does cut … which takes two shows, yes, but that’s the same idea. This kind of combinatorial power is valuable when modelling a domain.


The interface to muvee Reveal’s rendering engine “ShowTime” is built around this kind of an abstraction. The details of ShowTime and the DSL for authoring muvee’s “styles” built on top of this API are available publicly. In this case, the DSL abstracts away implementation details such as the deep nesting of functions that might result in a naive implementation.

Functions are closed under composition

Here is what makes the closure property worth hunting for –

When you have several functions under which your set is closed, it is also closed under arbitrary compositions of these functions.

So, well, why bother with a DSL? Why not just use function composition? One reason is that, in the real world, your set is closed with respect to each of these functions only under certain constraints. These constraints might make it difficult to predict whether a given composition of these functions is a valid operation in your domain. You will need to validate a composition before you begin to act on it, which becomes difficult if you only have access to the composition and not the parts. A DSL that abstracts over these constraints by exposing only that subset of compositions that are valid in the domain would therefore be of great help to people reusing your work.

The DSL’s purpose, then, is to hide the constraints under which closure is possible and composition operations are valid - i.e. where composition and use are context sensitive.

A DSL for asynchronous operations

Let’s consider an example where having a DSL seems beneficial - composing asynchronous operations.

It is a common convention for a function that does some asynchronous action to accept “callback” and “errback” functions to call when it succeeds or fails respectively. Composing such actions into sequences soon turns into what is usually referred to as “callback hell” and the person reading the source soon looses sight of the whole flow of control.

So, do we satisfy our “DSL criteria” here?

  1. Closure property? CHECK. A sequence of operations is itself an operation.
  2. Constraints? CHECK. A sequence is allowed to proceed normally only when an operation doesn’t fail. There are many error handling strategies when an operation fails and we may not have seen all of them yet.

Let’s then make a small DSL for sequencing asynchronous operations.

Representing asynchronous operations

First we’re going to need a way to define new asynchonous operations in plain Javascript for our “primitives”. A simple representation is to model an async operation (let’s call them “asop"s for convenience) as a function that takes a specific set of arguments as follows –

function asop(M, input, success, failure) {
    // ...
    // we're good.
    M.start(success, input, M.end, M.failure);

    // Something bad happened
    M.start(failure, M.error("bad", input, success, failure), M.end, M.end);

The function takes four parameters -

  1. M is a module that provides facilities for starting an asop – M.start and a terminal operation M.end that does nothing and stops all processing.
  2. input is the data being passed to the asop to do its job.
  3. success is an asop to start once this asop finishes successfully.
  4. failure is an asop to start if this asop cannot be completed for some reason.

Note that an asop is recursively defined in terms of and makes use of two other asops success and failure, which themselves have the same function signature.

We take M.error to be a utility that produces an error object that captures the current error state to pass to the failure operation. Here is a simple definition for M

M.start = function (op, input, succ, fail) {
    setTimeout(function () {
        op(M, input, succ, fail);
    }, 0);
M.error = function (descr, input, succ, fail) {
    return new Error({descr: descr, input: input, success: succ, failure: fail});
M.end = function () {};

Sequencing two operations

Since our operations are ordinary functions, we can write a “sequencing operator” for combining two operations as a higher order function as follows –

function seq(first, next) {
    return function (M, input, success, failure) {
        M.start(first, input, seq(next, success), failure);

Note: This looks like infinite recursion, but it will terminate automatically when M.end is passed for next because, we define M.end to be the operation that doesn’t continue further.

Making a chain of operations

The humble seq operator can now be put to use to chain an arbitrary number of operations given as an array —

function rseq(next, first) { return seq(first, next); }
function chain(operations) {
    var revOps = operations.slice(0).reverse();
    return function (M, input, success, failure) {
        M.start(revOps.reduce(rseq, success), input, M.end, failure);

(BUGFIX: Previously chain used seq, but the arguments needed to be the other way around. Thanks to commenter for pointing out. - 23 Oct 2014)

Umm … why do we need a DSL again?

You’d be right in asking that question. So far, it looks like the language is expressive enough to let us code up all these compositions using plain higher order functions. So, let me throw something into the mix that might cause you to stumble if you think such functions alone are adequate.

Consider the exchanges that happen between a web server and a client (browser). A client instructs a web server to perform some operation, the server gets back when done, or with progress notifications, then the client does a few async things like store some data locally, and then makes the next request and so on. The ability to represent a sequence of actions directly is a boon to take care of all these exchanges happening between these two dance partners.

So here is your task -

Abstract away the transaction to survive a termination of connection with the server. I’m not talking packet loss here. I’m talking about the user initiating a series of operations and in the middle of things shutting down the browser. What I want to happen is for the operations to continue exactly from wherever they left off – because I cannot “throw an exception” and undo a rocket launch. If the client was waiting for a response from the server, it should again start waiting for that response; and by implication if the server was doing something and found out that the connection had terminated at the “next” step, it should’ve stored away whatever it needed to do to continue, and must resume that when the user connects again, maybe after some mild handshaking. In particular, it is not acceptable to terminate the operation sequence just because the browser was closed.

Trying to do something like this is where reifying processes as functions breaks down. To a lisp/scheme programmer, a solution would already be in sight – use s-expressions to represent operations and store away instructions in that form. What might we do in the Javascript world?

J expressions

The image I have in my mind now is Douglas Crockford standing with legs apart, arms folded, cape flying with a speech bubble pointing to his head saying “JSON to the rescue!”.

Since we have our framework taking care of coordinating the success and failure of operations, all it takes to specify an operation, given a known set of named “primitive” operations, are the following –

  1. The name of the operation to start.
  2. An input object to customize any details of the operation.

So, there you go, we can change our representation of an operation from being a function to something that looks like -

{opname: input_object}

(Technically, that’ll be {"opname": input_object} in JSON, but let’s ignore that difference since it is serializable using JSON, which is what’s important.)

The input object is also a literal or computed value which we restrict to JSON-serializable values. The named primitive operation can itself be provided in a module as a function that takes the whole spec object and does what it is supposed to do.

We can now specify a series of operations as an array in this form -

{do: [
    {ask: "Enter file name: ", 
        type: "file"},
    {fetchFile: {showProgress: "progress_bar"},
        reportInterval: 1.0},
    {spawn: {withRetry: {uploadToDropbox: {user: "cat", password: "meow"}},
                maxTries: 5,
                  onfail: {do: [
                            {deleteTempFiles: null},
                            {ask: "Dropbox upload failed. Try again?", 
                                type: "yes/no",
                                 yes: {retry: true},
                                  no: {raise: "Give up"}}
    {cacheInLocalStore: "prefix"},
    {showInElement: "element_id"}

If we are given the primitive operations as members of a module M, we can run a primitive operation as follows -

function runPrimitiveOperation(opspec) {
    return function (M, input, success, failure) {
        for (var opname in opspec) {
            M[opname](M, opspec, input, success, failure);


Here I’m making use of the fact that JS engines today such as V8 always enumerate the keys of an object in the order in which they were added to it. This is what lets us identify the first key as determining the operation to start with the operation implementation knowing what to make of the other keys in the expression, the parameters and so on.

Also note that we’ve put in a pipeline here – i.e. ask gets a file name that it passes as input to fetchFile which passes the fetched file data to spawn, and so on. spawn is a higher order operation, since it takes an operation as the argument to perform concurrently, while continuing by passing its input through to cacheInLocalStore.

Our framework, then, serves as an interpreter for this mini language, providing the necessary abstractions on how we expect these operations to be executed behind the scenes. What is important is that users of our framework are not forced to think about browser shutdown/restart cases and can simply assume that the infrastructure we provide will “do the right thing”.

Now, I’m not going to go into details of what one actually needs to do to implement the shutdown/restart behaviour, but at this point, it ought to be clear enough that given a serializable representation of “operations still left to do” and a serializable representation of the input to give to this sequence, we can dump both at any point to disk (plus some book keeping info) and resume after a browser/server restart. We’ll need to do that for each task sequence that’s active at the point the shutdown is initiated.

The important thing is that the one writing the script can focus on writing the script instead of the operational details.


The main takeaways from this post are the following -

  1. If you find categories of objects in your problem domain that are closed over a number of functions and you want to abstract away the constraints under which those functions can be combined, you may find it useful to create a DSL for your domain.

  2. The consistent implementation of key enumeration order of objects in Javascript engines allows us to write specifications of composeable computations using generic JSON-serializable notation that we can call “J-expressions”.

    {opname: main_parameter,
        keyword1: value1,
        keyword2: value2,
  3. J-expressions, in combination with functions that implement what the operation named “opname” is supposed to do, are then a systematic way to approach DSL construction within Javascript. The notation is as expressive as s-expressions. For instance, here is a way to write a “higher order asop” :)

    {lambda_the_ultimate: ["arg"],
        do: [
            {step1: ..},
            {step2: ..}